Tuberculosis:- A Global health problem
Tuberculosis (TB) it is represents a major global health threat that, it is despite being the preventable and the treatable,as we can say and it is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide.
And we know it is the second leading infectious killer after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
And the Every year, 10 million people fall ill with the tuberculosis (TB). Despite being a preventable and the curable disease,and it is 1.5 million people die from the TB each year – making it the world's top infectious killer. The TB is the leading cause of death of people with HIV and also a major contributor to the antimicrobial resistance.
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Introduction:- Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine. A person with TB can die if they do not get treatment. A disease caused by a specific type of bacteria that spreads from one person to another through the air. Tuberculosis can affect many parts of the body, but most often affects the lungs.
Typical symptoms of the TB include the:-
A persistent cough that lasts more than three weeks and usually brings up phlegm, which may be bloody.
High temperature (fever)
TIredness and fatigue.
Loss of appetite.
New swellings that haven't gone away after a few weeks.
Causes of TB:-
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick.
Risk factors for TB include:
Being in jail or prison (where close contact can spread infection)
Taking medication that weakens the immune system.
Kidney disease and diabetes.
How can you prevent TB?
good ventilation: as TB can remain suspended in the air for several hours with no ventilation.
natural light: UV light kills off TB bacteria.
good hygiene: covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing reduces the spread of TB bacteria.
Diagnosis of TB:-
There are two kinds of tests used to detect TB bacteria in the body: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests. A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease.
Stages of TB:-
There are 3 stages of TB—exposure, latent, and active disease. A TB skin test or a TB blood test can diagnose the disease. Treatment exactly as recommended is necessary to cure the disease and prevent its spread to other people.
Management of TB:-
The most common treatment for active TB is isoniazid INH in combination with three other drugs—rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. You may begin to feel better only a few weeks after starting to take the drugs but treating TB takes much longer than other bacterial infections.
Specific management of TB is : 2 antibiotics (isoniazid and rifampicin) for 6 months. 2 additional antibiotics (pyrazinamide and ethambutol) for the first 2 months of the 6-month treatment period.
Complications of TB:-
Tuberculosis infection can cause complications such as:
Infection or damage of your bones, spinal cord, brain, or lymph nodes.
Liver or kidney problems.
Inflammation of the tissues around your heart.
•the main complication of primary tuberculosis?
An unusual complication of primary tuberculosis is bronchial obstruction due to pressure of a node on a main bronchus. This phenomenon, sometimes called epituberculosis, may lead to secondary bronchiectasis. Untreated primary disease may progress to involve the entire lung and disseminate.
Conclusions of TB:-
Conclusion: We conclude that tuberculosis infection and disease remain common in populations characterized by poor housing conditions, drug use, and HIV infection.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine. A person with TB can die if they do not get treatment.
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